Terrorism is coordinated attacks aimed at generating feelings of terror against a group of people. Unlike the war, acts of terrorism are not subject to the procedures of warfare such as execution time is always a sudden and random targets and casualties are often civilians.
Many of the opinion that trying to define terrorism, one of which is the meaning of the article 14 paragraph 1 of the Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1984, as follows: “Terrorism means the use of violence for political ends and includes any use of violence for the purpose putting the public or any section of the public in fear . “terrorism activity has the objective to make others feel frightened and thus can attract the attention of people, group or nation
Terrorism in the world is not a new thing, but it becomes particularly since the events of the actual World Trade Center (WTC) in New York, United Serikatpada September 11, 2001, known as the “September Grey”, which took 3000 casualties. Attacks carried out by air, not using combat aircraft, but uses a commercial plane owned by U.S. company itself, so it is not caught by radar the United States. Three belong to the United States commercial aircraft hijacked, two of which crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center Twin Towers and the Pentagon.
ISLAM IS NOT RELIGION TERROR
Qur’an as a guide for Muslims is clearly opposed to acts of violence and suicide diri.Seperti described in the Qur’an Surat an-Nisa verse 29 to 30
“… And, do not kill yourselves. For Allah swt. Most Merciful to you. And, whoever did so with any wrongdoing and keaniayaan, surely, We shall cast him into the fire. And it’s so easy for Allah .. “(Sura 4:29-30)
The majority of terrorists are Muslims hardliners and the lower classes they have the view that all people outside of Islam are infidels and they should melenyapkannya.Mereka knows no tolerance in religion, with their limited knowledge of religious easily deflected by certain elements who deliberately want to divide inter-religious life.
In relation to terrorism, the question arises which were never answered, is there any functional correlation between Islam and Terrorism? Could the alleged mastermind of the religious movement as a representation of Islamic terrorism, both in the realm of teaching and his followers?
Indeed, the questions kept flowing over, flood sederas. Stigmatization of Islam as a religion of terrorists more powerful. This is closely related to the rise of Islamic political movements that show the views of fundamentalist. Phenomenon, post-collapse of the twin towers, the responses of most of the political Islamic movement rather than sympathy for the victims of humanity, but more and enlarge the resistance to the west. Which emerges is the spirit of anti-western. Whatever comes from the west is always criticized and ditolak.Sikap is not without precedent. Political Islam is also the hardening of attitudes in line with the policy of United States foreign policy is increasingly hard as well, especially regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and a plan to attack Iraq. It just gives ammunition to react faster and faster from Islamic circles Politik.Kendatipun Thus, the subject that can not be ignored, that the potential-pontensi for the formation of religious understanding that leads to terrorism in Islamic tradition can be obtained easily. This is usually caused by a textual view of scripture. Kamal Abul Majid (2000) in al-Irhab wa al-Islam (Islam and Terrorism) confirmed, that terrorism in the Islamic tradition of religious views are formed through a threatening and frightening (al-wa al-takhwif Tahdid).
Terrorism in Arabic is called al-irhab. The term is used the Koran to fight the “enemies of God” (QS.8: 60,. Therefore, if we look at political Islamic movement, and movement radikalistik fundamentalist views are often used against “enemies of God”. For them, the west is referred to as one a symbol of the enemy Tuhan.Dalam identify the enemy, political Islam uses three basic views. First, as part of political Islam. political practice is obligatory (fardlu) for every Muslim. This resulted in every Muslim must engage in politics in order to fight the “infidel politics”. Second, Islam as the true community, while others are considered apostates. Third, the tendency to impose the view with the “iron fist”, violence, murder and war, commonly referred to as jihad fi sabililillah. (Sa’id Ashmawi: 1996: 297 )
Here, the location of the Problem, when used as a landscape of political Islam, being unable to accommodate “other views” and “other groups”. Therefore, the views are impacted negatively, not only for “others”, but for Islam itself that God mandated a religion rahmatan li al-‘alamien.
TERRORISM IS A CRIMINAL ACTION
It is indeed possible, given that the provisions of the Criminal Law of a special nature, can be created because of :
1. The existence of a process of criminalization of certain acts in society. Due to the influence of the times, the view changes in society. Something that was originally considered not as a Crime, due to changes in views and norms in society, including the Crime and be regulated in a law Criminal Law.
2. Act which are deemed no longer adequate to changing norms and technological development in a community, while for changes to laws that already exist are considered time consuming.
3. An urgent situation that is considered necessary to create a special rule to immediately handle.
4. The existence of a special act which if used processes set out in legislation that already exist will have difficulty in proving.
Law no. 15/2003 On Combating Criminal Acts of Terrorism: A Reflection
So far, the only counter-terrorism strategy of the government is Law no. 15 of 2003 concerning the eradication of terrorism that previously was PP in Lieu of Law No. 1 of 2002. Unfortunately, if analyzed in greater depth this Act turned out to save a fundamental weakness that makes it less effective in addressing problems of terrorism in Indonesia.Ibarat adage ‘prevention is better than cure’ the Law on combating terrorism represents the opposite. The most fundamental weakness in the law is its strategic objectives. According to Richardson, a strategic goal of effective counter-terrorism is not just limited to combating terrorism, but also the prevention of acts of terrorism (Richardson, 2006). In the Law on combating acts of terrorism, eradication still feel very strongly felt since the Act was passed after the 2003 Bali bombings that are strategically focused only on the elimination of terrorist groups rather than on the effects of such a chain of events.
In fact, preventive aspects of counter-terrorism is vital because this involves the dramatization of the effects of terrorist acts which it is intended to reap the seeds of radicalism others in the community. One effort to do prevention is to isolate the groups or networks that have been proven to perform an act of terror from the communities.Unfortunately, this is underestimated by the government with no revisions or designing prevention strategies of terrorism at an early stage. As a result, terrorist groups managed to exploit loopholes in counter-terrorism strategy is so successful without being detected designing and executing the bombings on July 17 lalu.Selain was, in fact aspects of the prevention of terrorism requires cooperation between state security forces and society.Prevention policy in this case involves the isolation of groups or specific tissues that have been proven legally involved acts of terrorism from the society (Richardson, 2006).Obviously this requires a strong legal basis of the state apparatus in order to avoid misunderstandings in the prevention policy. In this case, criticism from religious leaders on the issue of supervision of propaganda during the month of Ramadan by the police some time ago should not have happened if the country early on a security device is equipped with a clear legal rules regarding restrictions as well as clear mechanisms of partnership with community elements in the prevention of terrorism.
Counter-terrorism Strategy and the National Security Strategy
Lack of counter-terrorism strategy of the government is also caused by the persistence of the debate about the function and role of state actors within the framework of the national security system. In fact, according to Richardson (2006), coordinate the bureaucratic challenges in order to work effectively is the core of a counter-terrorism strategy effective.Therefore, before designing counter-terrorism strategy should be made in advance of clarity regarding national security strategy that regulates the function, role and coordination of state security actors such as Army, Police and BIN.
Problems regarding the need for the concept of comprehensive national security Indonesia have echoed all the time. But it is not getting serious attention from the government. Starting from the increasing number of clashes between the military-police apparatus after the separation of the two institutions, the existence of a requirement of the National Security Bill then becomes essential to manage both the operational area.Unfortunately, the discussion of the bill is still pending in the House because it is still lack of understanding between state security actors, especially the Police regarding the significance of the Bill.
There is no clear national security system and affect the issues surrounding the handling of threats to national security such as terrorism which later became a multi-interpretative nature. This can be seen from airings of issues involving the military are still warm, discussed in the media lately. In this issue, military officials publicly stated that the TNI’s involvement in the operations against terrorism have no doubt it is legal because it is already regulated in the Law on TNI (Kompas, August 31, 2009; See also, Article 7, the TNI Law no. 34 Years 2004).
Although TNI involvement in addressing terrorism has been mandated by the Law on the TNI, but it also requires a legal rule-operating in order to avoid overlapping in the handling of terrorism. The issue whether or not the TNI in dealing with terrorism should be considered thoroughly and carefully, especially given the proposed involvement of the TNI came hand in hand with the notion that the military better able to cope with terrorism than the police (Kompas, August 27, 2009). Surely the government should look at this issue again reflect the significance of a National Security Act governing the division of functions and roles of the state security actors in order to avoid disputes over the handling of national security threats such as terrorism in the future.
Terrorism is a violent behavior must be understood politically well-organized starting from recruitment, funding of up to execution. Therefore, it is necessary also to deal with security actors and counter-terrorism strategy that terkonseptualisasi and better organized. A big mistake arises when a country reduces the problem of terrorism is not limited to combating terrorist movements to prevent its spread. Moreover, the threat of terrorism will be more dangerous when the state security actors are still debating the function and its role in dealing with terrorism. Therefore, the Indonesian government should take immediate concrete steps to establish prevention strategies and reformulate the National Security Act will need to address both these issues which could potentially expand the gap for terrorist groups to act and endangering the safety of the entire community.